Saturday, January 01, 2011

Attention Deficit Returns As You Get Older

"PAY ATTENTION!" is a phrase teachers have to repeat again and again to youngsters. Whether or not attention deficit is of clinical magnitude, most kids have to learn how to pay attention. What you may not know is that this problem returns for most people as they become Senior Citizens.

Does any of this sound familiar: “Where did I put those keys?” “What was it I wanted when I opened the frig door?” "What was that phone number I just looked up?” These memory problems happen because you get distracted and lose attention.
A brain-scan study at the University of Toronto found that older people, compared to young adults, have decreased brain activity in brain areas that enable concentration This means that older brains can’t focus well, because the parts of the brain that enable concentration don’t get active enough.
To compound the problem, older people show increased activity in parts of the brain that don’t normally get activated during memory tasks in younger people. The explanation for this is that the brains of older people need to assign the attentiveness and memory work to more parts of brain. That is, they have to recruit more circuitry to do the same job young brains can do with fewer brain resources.  However, you look at it, the findings document an age-related decline in the brain's ability to focus its neural resources on memory tasks. What may be most worrisome is that the brain shows such signs of decline around age 40.
 Another study at the University of Illinois examined age-related increase in distractibility. Researchers recorded brain electrical responses in young adults and old subjects (65-78) who were listening to distracting bursts of sound. In young people, brain responses to repeated, irrelevant tones were quickly suppressed but responses to distracting sound were more persistent in older adults.              
Yet another study, this one from the U. California at San Francisco, confirmed that older people tend to have difficulty in ignoring distractions and irrelevant stimuli. Subjects performed a memory task of ignoring a previous stimulus that was still in working memory. In other words, the subject had to suppress the memory of irrelevant stimuli. The results showed that older individuals could focus on pertinent information but had difficulty in ignoring irrelevant or distracting information that was contained in working memory. However, about half of the older adults did not have this problem. So let us not come away with the conclusion that memory deficits in the elderly are inevitable.
Enough already! What you would really like to know is what to do about attention deficit if you have it.
One general approach is to keep your brain working hard as you age. Good examples include chess or learning a new language or a musical instrument. Think of it like exercise for the brain, which strengthens the neural circuits in those parts of the brain that have to do the memory work and distinguish irrelevant from relevant information.
Another general strategy is to reduce the distractions in our life, at least distractions that are present when we are trying to remember something. Multi-tasking is hard enough to do when you are young. On those occasions when I forget why I opened the refrigerator door, it is always because I let myself get distracted between the time I decided what I wanted and the time when I opened the door.
          Focus, focus, focus. We older people need to work at paying attention. Here are some tips on how to do that:

·   Assign importance to paying attention and remembering. If you don’t think something is important, your brain won’t commit enough circuitry to handle the information.
·   Expect and demand of yourself successful remembering. Make forgetting unacceptable.
·   Work with small chunks of information at any one time. By lowering the memory load, the brain’s limited resources can deal with it more effectively.
·   Be interested in what you are trying to remember. Don’t let it be boring. Boring is a state of mind that you can do something about.
·   Get engaged with the information. Ask yourself or others questions about it. Think about it in different ways.
·   Try to stay rested, alert, and sharp. Nobody focuses well when they are tired.
   
To summarize, the best way to pay attention is through force of will. To remember, you have to want to remember and accordingly force yourself to pay attention.

Copyright 2010, W. R. Klemm
 
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4 comments:

  1. Controlling attention through the force of will is easier said than done. That's why I invented a simple electronic device called a MotivAider (http://habitchange.com/focus.php)that allows its user to keep attention focused on virtually any chosen personal objective.

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  2. Thanks for the tips. It's so true if you focus better you can remember better.

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  3. Good advice! Thanks! Since moving past 40 (and a considerable distance beyond) I've found that what you say is correct ... it takes greater focus to remember why I put my car keys in the fridge and put the milk in the car! :)

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