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Sunday, June 24, 2007

Multi-tasking: How the Brain Fools You

Are you impressed with the multi-tasking abilities of young people? Don't be. Our brain works hard to fool us into thinking it can do more than one thing at a time. It can't. Recent MRI studies at Vanderbilt prove that the brain is not built for good multi-tasking. When trying to do two things at once, the brain temporarily shuts down one task while trying to do the other. In their study, even doing something as simple as pressing a button when an image is flashed causes a delay in brain operation. It is highly likely, though not yet studied, that the delays and confusion magnify with increases in the number of different things one tries to do simultaneously.

For details on this research go to the Web supplement for my book on improving memory:

Friday, June 08, 2007

Forgetting Can Be Good - Solving the "Tip-of-the-Tongue" Problem

Ever forget something you know you know ... like a friend's name or some other equally embarrassing piece of information? It is on the tip of your tongue, but you just can't get it out.

New research suggests that the problem is caused by a failure to forget. That is, you remember too many wrong things that interfere with the recall of what you want.

Researchers at Stanford University recently clarified this problem by a study in which subjects were required to recall words from among many similar words that they had also seen but not required to remember.

Recall effectiveness ranged from about 30 to 80%, with better performance correlating with poor recall of those words that subjects were not supposed to remember. In other words, the better subjects could forget irrelevant information, the better they could recall what they were supposed to remember.

During all of the testing, subjects had their brains scanned by MRI, and these results showed a decrease in brain activity in the brain areas that detect and resolve memory competition as a given word pair was rehearsed. That is, as the learning progressed, there is a decrease in the amount of work the brain has to do. Interestingly, with the irrelevant word pairs, the effectiveness at forgetting was associated with still greater decreases in brain activity. That is, forgetting of competing memories lowered the required workload for remembering the relevant memories.

Clearly, "tiip-of-the-tongue" recall problems would benefit from strategies that improve the ability to forget irrelevant memories. I am not aware of any formal studies that tell you how to do this. My own experience suggests two things to do, which I explain on my Web site.

Source: Kuhl, B. A. et al. 2007. Decreased demands on cognitive control reveal the neural processing benefits of forgetting. Nature Neuroscience. Published online: 3 June; | doi:10.1038/nn1918.

Read more about it at
... and get "Dr. Bill's" book from that site so you will have a complete background on how to improve your memory.

Tuesday, June 05, 2007

New Neurons. Use Them or Lose Them

Many studies have demonstrated that new neurons are continuously being born in the hippocampus, the part of the brain that forms new memories. Learning increases the survival of neurons born up to a week before the learning. In other words, use them or lose them.

Source: Drapeau, E. et al. 2007. Learning-induced survival of new neurons depends on the cognitive stateus of aged rats. J. Neuroscience. 27 (22): 6037-6044.

Read more about it at
... and get "Dr. Bill's" book from that site so you will have a complete background on how to improve your memory.

Epicatechin - Newly discovered memory Chemical

It is found in blueberries, tea, grapes, and cocoa, and it improves memory in laboratory animals. Epicatechin, is one of a family of chemicals known as flavonols. It improves blood flow in the brain and presumably also in the heart. In a recent study of maze learning in mice, memory lasted longer in the group that got the epicatechin supplement and also exercised. Memory also improved in the sedentary mice, but was not as pronounced.

van Praag, H. et al. 2007. Plant-derived flavanol (-) epicatechin enhances angiogenesis and retention of spatial memory in mice. J. Neuroscience. 27 (22) 5869-5878.

Read more about it at
... and get "Dr. Bill's" book from that site so you will have a complete background on how to improve your memory.